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The Dutch former Colonies

Previous • How it starts... • North America • Central America • South America • Africa • Asia

North America

During the 17th century, Dutch traders established trade posts and plantations throughout the Americas; actual colonization, with Dutch settling in the new lands was not as common as with settlements of other European nations. Many of the Dutch settlements were lost or abandoned by the end of that century, but the Netherlands managed to retain possession of Suriname until it gained independence in 1975, as well as the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba, which remain within the Kingdom of the Netherlands today.
The Dutch connection with North America began in September 1609, when Henry Hudson, an English Captain, in service to the VOC (Vereenigde OostIndische Compagnie)discovered with his ship "De Halve Maene" (The Half Moon) the river which today bears his name. He was in search of a NW passage to Asia.
Shortly after the return of the Hudson expedition, Dutch merchants sent out new expeditions, the aim of all these expeditions was fur trade with the Indians.

In 1614, the States General of the United Provinces of the Netherlands granted a charter for three years to the New Netherlands Company of Amsterdam.
The first Dutch settlement in North America was built in late 1614 on Castle island (an island on the Hudson river little below the site of Albany, NY). This trading-post was called Fort Nassau, but this fort lay frequently under water and for that was abandoned in 1617.
In 1621 the new born West Indische Compagnie (WIC) granted a charter that included the coast and countries of Africa from the tropic of Cancer to the Cape of Good Hope and also all the coast of America.

In 1624 the first WIC expedition started, a ship whit about thirty families of colonist (most of them were Walloons) reached the Hudson or Great River, they anchored near the abandoned Fort Nassau, here later in 1624 a new fort called Fort Oranije was built on the west side of the river where Albany now stands. In the same year the Dutch began to build two forts, one on the South River (Delaware) named Fort Nassau, and the other on the Fresh River (Connecticut) which was called Fort De Goede Hoop.

In 1626 a fort was built on Manhattan Island at the mouth of the Hudson River, this fort was called Fort Amsterdam and around it the town of Nieuw Amsterdam developed, it was destined to become the capital of the Dutch colony, in 1628 the population at Nieuw Amsterdam was of 270 souls.
In 1630 three patroonships were founded: on the South River, Swanendael; on the North River at its mouth, Pavonia; and at Fort Oranije, Rensselaerswyck. The last, Rensselaerswyck, was the only successful patroonship in Nieuw Netherlands.
In 1633 a wooden church was erected in Nieuw Amsterdam, and in 1642 it was replaced by a stone church inside the Fort.

In March 1638 a Swedish expedition arrived in the South River (Delaware) where they founded the colony of Nya Sverige. The Dutch that were at Fort Nassau strongly protested.

In 1647 the population of Nieuw Holland was of 1.500-2.000 souls.
In 1652 the population of the city of Nieuw Amsterdam was of 800 souls, a Municipal Government was given to it in 1652-53, a Burgomaster was appointed.
In 1664 the population of Nieuw Amsterdam was of 1.600 souls, that of the whole Nieuw Holland was of about 10.000 souls.

On 8 September 1664 (during the Second Anglo-Dutch War) the English took possession of Nieuw Amsterdam and they renamed the city, New York. At the treaty of Breda (1667) Nieuw Nederland was exchanged with the English for the colony of Suriname which at that time was a more developed and rich colony.

The Dutch in August 1673 (during the third Anglo-Dutch War) retook possession of New York, the fort was renamed Fort Willem Hendrick while New York became Nieuw Oranje. But at the treaty of Westminster that was signed in February 1674 the colony went back to the English. In November 1674 the Dutch flag waved for the last time in Nieuw Oranje (New York).

List of Fortifications in the USA

Fort Goed Hope (Hartford): Fort Goed Hope, Fort Huis ter Hope
Prinseneiland, Moordenaarseiland (Murderer's Island, Prince's Island): Fort Wilhelmus
Fort Casimir (Newcastle): Nieuw Amstel, Fort Nieuwer Amstel, Fort Drie-eenheid
Altona, Altena (Wilmington): Fort Christina, Fort Altena
Blommaerts Kil, Horekil, Whorekill, Hoerenkill: Compagniesfort, Compagniesfort Whorekill
Swaenendael (Lewes):
Pentagouet: Dutch: Aug. 1674 - Sep. 1674  
Mahaffie  "A land of discord always: Acadia from its beginnings to the expulsion of its people 1604 - 1755"  
Fort Nassau (Gloucester):
Pavonia, Hoboken, Pavonia, Bergen (Jersey City):
Bommelerweert, Schoon Eylandt, Carrs Island, Juniosa Island, Hooge Eiland (Burlington Island):
Fort Nassau (Castle Island):
Fort Oranje or Orange (Albany):
Beverswijck, Beverwijck (Albany): Fort Beverwijck
Nieuw Amsterdam, Manhattos (New York): Fort Amsterdam
Rensselaerswijck (Rensselaer):
Colen Donck, Donck's heer land, Djoncksheerland (The Yonkers):
Staten eiland (State island):
Hastings, Newtown, Misput, Middelburg (Maspeth):
Wiltwyck, Sopus, Esopus (Kingston):
Rustdorp (Jamaica):
Heemstede (Hempstead):
Muscoota, Haarlem, Nieuw Haarlem (Harlem):
Gravesand (Gravesend):
Oostdorp, Westchester, Vreedland (Freedland):
Vlissingen (Flushing):
Nieuw-Amersfoort (Flatlands):
Midwout (Flatbush):
Boswijck (Bushwick):
Breukelen, Brookland (Brooklyn):
Nieu Dorp (Hurley):(Tarrytown):

Fort Beversreede (Philadelpia):
Fort Nya Korsholm:


Jemseq (Nieuw-Brunswijk) (1674)

Verenigde Staten van Amerika:

Nieuw-Nederland: (Nieuw-Zweden) (1614-1674)
(Fort Nassau en Fort Oranje) (1615-1661 / 1673-1674)
(Nieuw-Amsterdam) (1626-1664 / 1665-1667)
(Latijn: Nova Belgica of Novum Belgium, Engels: New Netherland), is de naam van het voormalig Nederlands gebied tussen 38 en 45 graden van de oostkust van de huidige Verenigde Staten van Amerika sinds 1614. Het bevat nu de stad New York, vroeger Nieuw Amsterdam geheten, en gesticht in 1625. Nieuw-Nederland als provincie werd gesticht in 1624 en opgeŽist als het gebied tussen 38 en 42 graden. Bij de vrede van Westminster op 10 november 1674 werd het gebied echter definitief overgedragen aan de Engelsen die het New York noemden naar de Hertog van York


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